Instagram is one of the most popular social media platforms, and it’s easy to see why. The platform allows users to share photos and videos with their friends, family, and followers.

If you’re looking to grow your audience on Instagram, then you need to know how to write captions that attract your audience. In this post, I’m going to share a few tips to help you write Instagram captions for your photos that will help you attract more followers and grow your Instagram account. Let’s get started!

1. Choose the Right Hashtag

Choosing the right hashtag for your Instagram photos can be tricky, especially if you don’t know what hashtags your audience is using. You want to choose a hashtag that your followers are using, but you also want to make sure that the hashtag is relevant to your content.

For example, if your content is about travel, you might want to use a hashtag like #travel. However, if you want to attract people who are interested in food, you should use a food-related hashtag, such as #foodporn or #foodgasm. If you use the wrong hashtag, your photos will not show up in the search results of your followers, and they will miss out on the opportunity to see your photos.

To help you choose the right hashtags, you can use a tool like This tool allows you to see which hashtags are being used by your followers and which ones are not. You can also use this tool to find hashtags that are similar to the ones you are already using.

Once you have found a good hashtag, make sure to use it in your captions as well as in the photo itself. This way, your followers will be able to find your photos when they search for hashtags related to your photos, and you will get more likes and comments for your posts.

2. Use Emojis

Emojis are a great way to add personality to your Instagram posts. They can be used to add a bit of humor to your posts, which will make your followers feel more connected to you.

You can use emojis to make your posts more fun and interesting. For example, you could use a smiley face to show your followers that you are having a good time. You could also use a heart to show how much you care about the people you are talking to.

When you are choosing emojies, you don’t want to overdo it. You don’t have to use every emojie that is available to you, but it is a good idea to use at least one or two.

3. Write Short Captions

One of the best things about Instagram is that you can post as many photos as you want, and your followers can like and comment on as many of your photos as they want.

This means that you have a lot of flexibility when it comes to how long you can write a caption for your photo. If your caption is too long, it will be hard for your followers to read, and this will make them less likely to comment on your post.

Instead of writing a long caption, try to write a short caption that is still informative and interesting to your followers. This will make it easier for them to read your caption and will encourage them to leave a comment.

4. Include a Link to Your Website

A lot of people don’t realize this, but when you post a photo to Instagram, you are actually posting a link to your website. This means that if your followers want to learn more about you, they can click on your link and be taken to a page on your website where they can learn more.

Including a link in your caption will help your followers find out more information about you. It will also help you build a stronger relationship with your followers because they will be more likely to follow you on Instagram if they know that they can find you on your site.

5. Write a Catchy Caption

Your captions are an important part of your posts on Instagram. They are the first thing your followers see when they look at your post, so you want them to be interesting and engaging.

The best way to do this is to make the captions catchy and fun to read. Your captions should be short and to the point, but they should also be interesting enough to make people want to read the rest of your caption.

Here are some examples of catchy captions:

– “I’ve always wanted to visit the Taj Mahal.”

– “I’m having a great time at the beach today.”

6. Add Emoticons

Emoticons are a fun way to express your emotions when you are writing a caption. You should use emoticons if you are feeling happy, sad, angry, excited, or any other emotion that you might be feeling.

Adding emoticons to your captchas will make you seem more friendly and approachable, which can help you get more followers on Instagram and build a strong relationship with them.

7. Use Hashtags

Hashtags are a way to connect your photos with other photos that are related to the same topic. When you use hashtags in your photos and captions, your posts will be easier to find by other Instagram users.

There are many different types of hashtags to choose from, and each one has a different purpose. Some of the common hashtags include #travel, #food, #photography, #beauty, and #fashion.

8. Use Visual Elements

If you are posting a photo on Instagram, it is important to include a visual element in your photo as well. This can be a person, an object, or anything else that you think your followers might find interesting.

Using visual elements in your posts can make your photos more interesting and help you stand out from the crowd.

9. Add a Video

Adding a video to your photo is another way to make it more interesting. This is especially true if you have something interesting to say in your video.

If your video is interesting, you will have a better chance of getting more likes, comments, and followers.

10. Use the Right Filters

Filters are an easy way to change the way your photos look. There are hundreds of different filters available, and it can be hard to know which ones will work best for you. To help you decide which filters you should use, you should take a look at the photos that your followers are posting. If they are using the same filters that you want to use, then you can be sure that they will like your photos too.

11. Tag People

You should always tag people in your Instagram photos. This makes it easy for your friends and followers to find your photos.

It is also a good way to let your followers know who you are, what you are doing, and where you are at any given time.

12. Use a Hashtag

The last thing you should do is use a hashtag in your captions and photos. A hashtag is a word or a phrase that is followed by a pound sign (#).

Using hashtags will help you connect with other people who are interested in the same things as you. If you use the right hashtags, you can connect with people from all over the world.

As a dinosaur resume writer, I’m always looking for ways to make my clients’ resumes stand out from the crowd.

I’ve put together this list of tips to help you turn your dinosaur resume into something modern. I hope you find them useful!

1. Use Bullet Points

Bullet points are a great way to make your resume stand out. If you don’t know how to use them, here’s a quick tutorial on how to create bullet points:

– Create a new document in Microsoft Word

– Select the text you want to turn into a bullet point

– Click on the “Bullet Points” button on the Home tab

– Enter the number of bullet points you want in your resume

2. Use Bold, Italics, and Underlines

If you’re using Microsoft Word, you can use bold, italics, underlines, and strikethroughs to add visual interest to your resume. Here are some examples of what you can do with these different formatting options.

3. Use Headlines and Subheads

Headlines and subheads are great ways to help your resume grab the attention of hiring managers. Here is an example of how a resume with a headline and subhead can look like in a resume template.

This is a good example of a resume that uses subheads to break up the information in the body of the resume. It makes it easier for the hiring manager to scan the resume and find the information they are looking for.

4. Use Fonts and Colors

Using fonts and colors on your resume can help it stand out in a sea of other resumes. You can choose from a variety of fonts, sizes, colors, and styles to make sure your resume is visually appealing. Here, for example, is a resume using a sans-serif font in a light blue color.

5. Use Images

Images are another way to visually break up your resume and make it more interesting to the reader. For example, you could add an image of yourself to the top of your resume to give hiring managers a better idea of who you are and what you bring to the company. You could also add a picture of you and your family to show hiring managers that you are a family-oriented person.

6. Use Charts and Graphs

Charts and graphs can be used to add a visual element to your resumes. They can also help hiring managers understand the information you are providing. For instance, if you are applying for a marketing position, you might want to include a pie chart or bar graph that shows the percentage of time you spent on each of the different aspects of your job. Here’s an example using a bar graph to show how much time you spend on each aspect of a job.

7. Include a Cover Letter

A cover letter is a short letter that you send along with your resume when you apply for a job. It gives hiring managers an opportunity to get to know you a little bit better and learn more about you as a person. It also gives you a chance to sell yourself and show why you should be considered for the job.

8. Include References

Include a list of references in your cover letter and/or resume. References are a good way to show that you have the skills and experience that a hiring manager is looking for in a candidate.

9. Create a Professional Resume Template

You can create your own professional resume template to save time and make sure it looks the way you want it to look. There are many free resume templates available online that you can download and use as a starting point for creating your own resume template.

10. Don’t Be Afraid to Ask for Help

Don’t be afraid to ask for help when it comes to creating a professional resume. You don’t have to do it all on your own.

11. Make Sure Your Resume Is Accurate

Make sure you proofread and edit your resume before you send it to a potential employer. Make sure it is free of spelling and grammatical errors.

12. Include Contact Information

Your resume should include contact information, such as your phone number, email address, and mailing address. This way, hiring managers can contact you if they have any questions about your resume or if they want to set up an interview.

13. Include Social Media Links

Be sure to include links to any social media profiles you may have. This will help you connect with potential employers and give them an idea of what kind of person you are.

14. Keep It Simple

Keep your resume as simple and straightforward as possible. Include only the information that is relevant to the job you are trying to get.

15. Make it Mobile-Friendly

Mobile resumes are becoming more and more popular, so make sure you create a mobile-friendly resume.

16. Make It Easy for Hiring Managers to Read

Hiring managers spend a lot of time reading resumes. If they have to spend too much time reading your resume, they are less likely to read it and more likely to skip over it and move on to the next resume in the stack.

17. Include an Objective

An objective is a one-sentence statement that tells hiring managers why you are interested in the job and why you think you would be a good fit for the position.

18. Keep it Short and to the Point

Short and to-the-point is the best way to describe a resume. Your resume should be no longer than one page.

19. Use Bullet Points

Bullet points are a great way to make your resume more visually appealing and easier to read.

20. Use Numbers and Percentages

Use numbers and percentages to make it easy for hiring managers to understand how much experience you have in a certain area.

21. Use Keywords

Keywords are words that hiring managers use to search for resumes online. If your resume doesn’t include these keywords, it will be harder for a recruiter to find it.

## Introduction

Inbound marketing emails are emails that you send to your customers, prospects, and other interested parties. These emails can be triggered by a variety of events, such as when a user signs up for a newsletter, purchases a product, or fills out a contact form.

You can use inbound emails to:

– Communicate with your customers and prospects

– Generate leads

– Promote your products and services

– Increase brand awareness

– Engage with your audience

The goal of an email workflow is to automate the process of creating, sending, and managing your inbound email campaigns. You can use a workflow to create a series of emails that are triggered by different events. For example, you can create a workflow that sends a welcome email to users who sign up for your newsletter, and a thank-you email to customers who purchase a product from you. This way, you don’t need to manually create and send these emails every time you want to send an email campaign. Instead, the workflow will automatically create the emails and send them to the right people at the right time.

In this article, we’ll show you how to set up a basic email workflow in HubSpot. You’ll learn about the different types of emails you can include in your workflow, as well as how to create and manage them. We’ll also show you a few different ways you can use email workflows to generate more leads, increase your brand awareness, and generate more sales for your business.

## What is an email marketing workflow?

Email workflows are automated processes that help you create, send, and manage emails. They’re a great way to save time and make it easier for you to send emails to your leads, customers, and prospects. You don’t have to worry about creating and sending emails manually, because your workflow will take care of that for you. You just need to tell the workflow what you want it to do, and it will do the rest.

An email workflow consists of three main parts:

– Email templates – These are the actual emails you want your workflow to send. They can be HTML or plain text emails, and they can contain any type of content, including images, videos, and links. You have complete control over these emails, so you can customize them to fit your brand.

– Triggers – Triggers are the events that your workflow is triggered by. When one of these events occurs, the email workflow will run and send the appropriate email to the appropriate person at the appropriate time. The types of events that can trigger an email include:

– Signing up for an email list

– Purchasing a product

– Filling out a form

– Subscribing to a newsletter

– Joining a webinar

– Following your company on social media

– Responding to an email from your company

– Making a purchase on your website

– Downloading a file

– Creating a new lead in your CRM

## Email workflow types

There are three main types of email workflow that you can choose from: HubSpot Workflows, Zapier, and IFTTT. Each type of workflow has its own pros and cons, so it’s up to you to decide which one is best for your needs. Here are some of the main differences between the three types of workflows:

– HubSpot workflows – A HubSpot workflow is a collection of email templates, triggers, and actions that you use to automate your email marketing process. It’s easy to create, manage, and customize these workflows, so they’re great for beginners. However, they don’t work with third-party apps, and you can only use them to send email campaigns from your HubSpot CRM.

– Zapier – Zapier is an app that lets you automate tasks between different apps on your computer, phone, or tablet. You use Zapier to connect your email workflow to apps like MailChimp, Salesforce, Slack, and Google Sheets. This means you can send emails from HubSpot to these apps, or use these apps as triggers for HubSpot emails. Zapier also lets you create workflows between apps that aren’t part of the Zapier ecosystem, so if you have an app you’d like to use as a trigger for your emails, it’s possible to do that with Zapier.

– IFTTT – If This Then That is a free app that connects different apps and services on your phone, tablet, or computer. It allows you to create [recipes], which are sets of instructions that tell your phone or computer to do something when something else happens. These recipes are great for automating common tasks, like sending an email when someone subscribes to your email list, or creating a lead when someone signs up for your free trial.

## How to create an email workflow

To create a workflow, you’ll first need to log in to HubSpot and go to the Workflows section of your account. This is where you’ll find all of the workflows that you’ve created in the past. To create a new email workflow, click on the Create a new workflow button in the top-right corner of the Workflows section. This will take you to a new page where you can enter the details of your workflow:

1. Enter a name for your workflow in the Name field.

2. Select a Type from the drop-down menu.

3. Select an Email Template.

4. Click on Create to save your workflow.

Your workflow is now ready to be used. You can access it by clicking on your name in the upper-left corner of any page in HubSpot, and then clicking on Email Workflows. You’ll see a list of all of your email workflows.

I’m going to share a few tips with you to help you write a killer book presentation.

1. Know your audience

The first thing you need to do is to know your audience. Who are they? What are they looking for? What do they expect?

If you don’t know the answers to these questions, you won’t be able to write an effective book presentation for them. You won’t know what to say and how to say it. You’ll just be winging it, and that’s not a good way to write a book presentation!

2. Write your book presentation

You need to know what you’re going to say before you say it, right? That’s the same thing with writing a presentation. You have to write your presentation before you speak it.

If you’re not sure what you want to say, write it down. If you can’t think of anything, write that down, too. Write down what you think your audience wants to hear, and write down the things that you think they don’t want to hear. Write it all down. Then, when you’re writing your presentation, you can refer back to what you wrote down. This way, you’ll know exactly what you have to say to your audience, and you’ll have a better chance of saying it in a way that your audience will like.

Don’t write down your presentation until you’re done writing your book. You want to make sure that your book is finished before you write out your presentation. If your book isn’t finished, you may end up writing something that you have no idea what it means or what it’s supposed to say. If that happens, you’re just going to have to wing it and hope that you say the right thing at the right time. You can’t wing it if you haven’t written your presentation yet!

## Writing the Book

Now that you’ve written your book, it’s time to get down to business. In this part, we show you how to prepare your book for publication, and we give you some pointers on how to get your book into the hands of readers.

## Preparing Your Book for Publication

When you’re ready to publish your first book, you have a lot of decisions to make.

## What kind of book are you going to write?

How many pages do you want in your book? How many chapters do you need? What’s the number of words in each chapter? Do you want your book to have a table of contents, a glossary, a bibliography, and so on? (See Book I, Chapter 4 for more information on these types of book features.)

Who’s going to be your publisher? How much will it cost you to have your book published? How long will it take to get it published? What will you do if your book doesn’t sell as well as you think it will? What happens if the publisher doesn’t publish your book in the way that you want it to be published? (We talk more about these questions in the later section “Choosing a publisher.”)

Where will you sell your book when it’s published? Will you sell it online, in bookstores, or both? (Check out the section “Selling your book,” later in this chapter, for more info on these options.)

This chapter gives you the lowdown on all of these questions and more. We tell you what you need and what you can do to make your book the best it can be. We also help you decide whether self-publishing is the right choice for you, and if it is, we help you figure out how to go about doing it. Finally, we tell you all about the publishing industry and how it works, so that you can make the best decision for you when you decide to go the traditional publishing route or the independent publishing route.

Before you go any further, be sure to check out Book I to find out about the different types of books that are out there and how you can choose the one that’s right for you. You also need to read Book III, Chapter 1, which tells you about the basics of writing a book, and Book IV, Chapters 1 and 2, which give you tips on writing a good book proposal and a great book proposal, respectively. We recommend that you read both of these chapters before you get started on this part of the book, because they give you the information that you need in order to write the best book proposal or book proposal that you’re capable of writing. (For more on book proposals and book proposals, head to Book III and IV, respectively, of this book.)

## What Kind of Book Are You Going to Write and How Many Pages Do You Want in Your Book?

In this book, we talk a lot about the importance of having a clear idea of what your book will be about before you sit down to write it. But what if you already have an idea for a book in your head? What if you have an outline of your book already written out? If that’s the case, what do you do?

The Professional’s Guide to Negotiating a Job Offer is an advertising-supported site. Featured or trusted partner programs and all school search, finder, or match results are for schools that compensate us. This compensation does not influence our school rankings, resource guides, or other editorially-independent information published on this site.

Many job hunters mistakenly believe that when they’re hired for a job, they must accept what’s being offered to them in terms of salary and benefits. However, this isn’t necessarily the case. In fact, in many cases, workers can successfully negotiate better terms for a job offer so they don’t end up leaving money on the table. But this is only possible if they ask a potential employer for what they want.

“You get what you negotiate. Your career is your responsibility. Very few things in this world are certain. That includes your career. If there is something important to you, don’t presume that anyone can read your mind or will fight for you,” says career coach Carlota Zee. This guide is designed to increase the chances of job-seekers getting what they want from an offer. Continue reading for negotiation strategies, as well as information on what parts of a job offer can be negotiated and how to create an effective counter offer.

Finding the Average Salary and Compensation Package for Your Position

1. Salary Databases and Other Online Sources

Websites like PayScale and Glassdoor have salary estimates for just about any position. Some of these sites allow users to filter the information based on location. You can also go to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, which provides a comprehensive database of salary information for different jobs.

Other Salary Comparison Websites

2. Dig Deep to Learn All About the Company

Find out if the company has job grades or bands, and what band your target position is in. If they have a job grade system, you have to accept that it’s almost impossible to go above their imposed upper limit.

The salary also differs based on the company’s size and industry. A mom and pop shop will have a smaller budget compared to a multinational conglomerate, and it’s the same case if you compare a Wall Street firm with a local restaurant.

3. Ask Other Employees in Similar Positions

Ask your friends, family, professors, former colleagues, and mentors to give you feedback on the job offer you got. Ask them if it’s fair based on what they receive. People are, in general, uncomfortable talking about their income, but you’ll be surprised how open some friends are.

4. Gather Salary Info From Unions

5. Compare Cost of Living of Your Location

Compensation is also affected by the job’s location due to cost of living and talent demand. Big cities like New York and Silicon Valley have higher compensation, as opposed to small rural towns.

The Importance of Choosing the Right Time to Negotiate

Anna Runyan, Founder of Classy Career Girl, explains, “You don’t want to send a signal that you only care how much you can get. So always wait for the employer to make an offer, and never be the one to start the discussion about salary.”

This is a basic rule of negotiation, you have more power when the company has narrowed down their prospects to just one candidate—you. Sure, they probably have a second choice, but they prefer you more than the second pick, and a lot more than the other candidates. That’s leverage you can use.

When It’s Too Late to Negotiate

You can’t take your word back after you agreed to the job offer. Even if you realize the commuting expenses are terrible, and the money isn’t enough to pay your loans, your chances of winning that negotiation are slim to none.

The employer, the HR manager, and all your co-workers will think you’re either not serious about the job, or a total diva. Either reputation isn’t appealing when you’re starting out with a new company.

Email Templates to Lean on

Making a counter offer

  1. Express your continued excitement regarding the company and the role
  2. Discuss why you are the best candidate for the position — this is the time to bring in those value-enhancing qualities you found earlier.
  3. Include a statement of the total compensation package you were offered.
  4. Detail your full counter offer, including numbers and the reasons behind them– this is a time to bring in value-enhancing qualities and other research you did on the typical position salary.
  5. Re-emphasize your interest and appreciation for their consideration, as well as any key points you’d like them to reflect on.
  6. Express your willingness to discuss the counter offer further. Meeting in person is likely the best way to accomplish this.

Hello (Recruiter Name),

I would like to express my excitement and personally thank you for offering me the Project Manager position at XYZ Company. I greatly appreciate the opportunity to work for such a fast growing, forward-thinking company whose values align so well with my own. With my above average leadership experience and quality management skills, I’m confident that I will make strong contributions to your organization.

I found the equity and signing bonus to be agreeable, and would like to thank you for making them so generous. However, I would like to discuss refining the base salary. The salary of $57,000 that you offered is a bit less than what I was hoping for. The industry average falls at $65,000 and I would like to propose raising my base salary to match that. I believe that amount better reflects the experience and skill set I would bring to this position.

XYZ is a fantastic company and I look forward to joining the team! I appreciate you taking the time to consider my proposal and hope that we can come to an agreement. I would love to continue the discussion whenever you’re ready. You can reach me at this email address or at 123-456-7890 and I’d be happy to arrange a meeting.

I look forward to hearing from you soon!

Kind regards,

(Your Name)

Expressing disappointment outright

Hi (Recruiter Name),

I would like to express my excitement and personally thank you for offering me the Project Manager position at XYZ Company. I greatly appreciate the opportunity to work for such a fast growing, forward-thinking company whose values align so well with my own. With my above average leadership experience and quality management skills, I’m confident that I would make strong contributions to your organization.

I found the equity and signing bonus to be agreeable, and would like to thank you for making them so generous. However, I found the base salary to be somewhat disappointing. Based on my research, it is a bit lower than similar positions at this level. Are there any changes that can be made to the salary? If so, I would like to take them into account before making my final decision.

Thank you for your consideration and I look forward to hearing from you soon!

Kind regards,

(Your Name)

The information provided herein is for general informational purposes only and is not intended to provide tax, legal, or investment advice and should not be construed as an offer to sell, a solicitation of an offer to buy, or a recommendation of any security by Candor, its employees and affiliates, or any third-party. Any expressions of opinion or assumptions are for illustrative purposes only and are subject to change without notice. Past performance is not a guarantee of future results and the opinions presented herein should not be viewed as an indicator of future performance. Investing in securities involves risk. Loss of principal is possible.

Third-party data has been obtained from sources we believe to be reliable; however, its accuracy, completeness, or reliability cannot be guaranteed. Candor does not receive compensation to promote or discuss any particular Company; however, Candor, its employees and affiliates, and/or its clients may hold positions in securities of the Companies discussed.


Preschool Teacher

  • Teach children basic skills such as identifying colors, shapes, numbers, and letters
  • Work with children in groups or one on one, depending on the needs of children and on the subject matter
  • Plan and carry out a curriculum that focuses on different areas of child development
  • Organize activities so children can learn about the world, explore interests, and develop skills
  • Develop schedules and routines to ensure children have enough physical activity and rest
  • Watch for signs of emotional or developmental problems in each child and bring them to the attention of the child’s parents
  • Keep records of the children’s progress, routines, and interests, and inform parents about their child’s development

Young children learn from playing, problem solving, and experimenting. Preschool teachers use play and other instructional techniques to teach children. For example, they use storytelling and rhyming games to teach language and vocabulary. They may help improve children’s social skills by having them work together to build a neighborhood in a sandbox or teach math by having children count when building with blocks.

Preschool teachers work with children from different ethnic, racial, and religious backgrounds. Teachers include topics in their lessons that teach children how to respect people of different backgrounds and cultures.

Child day care services60%
Religious, grantmaking, civic, professional, and similar organizations17
Elementary and secondary schools; state, local, and private15
Individual and family services3

It may be rewarding to see children develop new skills and gain an appreciation of knowledge and learning. However, it can also be tiring to work with young, active children all day.

Work Schedules

Preschool teachers in public schools generally work during school hours. Many work the traditional 10-month school year and have a 2-month break during the summer. Some preschool teachers may teach in summer programs.

Preschool teachers in center-based Head Start programs are required to have at least an associate’s degree. However, at least 50 percent of all preschool teachers in Head Start programs nationwide must have a bachelor’s degree in early childhood education or a related field. Those with a degree in a related field must have experience teaching preschool-age children.

In public schools, preschool teachers are generally required to have at least a bachelor’s degree in early childhood education or a related field. Bachelor’s degree programs include instruction on children’s development, teaching young children, and observing and documenting children’s progress.

Steps to Take

Because of the importance of quality preschool teachers, the standards for entry into the field have increased as well. Preschool teachers can be found in Head Start programs, public schools, and private daycare programs. Some teachers work the traditional 10-month school year but others work a full 12-month year.

All preschool teachers need experience working with children, a high school diploma, a certification, and if you’re teaching in a public school, you’ll likely need to have a bachelor’s degree. You will need to have patience, be caring and kind, and quickly learn to develop classroom management skills.

What will you do?

A preschool teacher will have groups of students alternating through different learning experiences, learning centers, and play throughout the day. All of these learning experiences must be planned before the school day begins. The learning experiences need to be hands-on, enjoyable, and age and developmentally appropriate for each individual learner.

Types of learning experiences will include reading and reading readiness activities, reading aloud to students from books, hands-on science activities, and art activities that support learning about reading, writing, and science. Students will also learn social skills in lessons supplied by Head Start to their teachers.

Teachers are responsible for knowing age-appropriate classroom management strategies that help students learn how to take responsibility for their behaviors and their impact upon others.

Preschool teachers are also responsible for training and directing the work of teacher aides and volunteers in the classroom and communicating with parents and informing them what they can do as partners in their children’s education.

Preschool teachers usually do their lesson planning for upcoming lessons either in their classroom after school or at home. They may find that they need to reflect upon their teaching daily in order to ensure that they are creating a space in which all students are learning and growing educationally and socially every day. This will involve individualizing instruction, using grouping strategies, behavior contracts with some students, and scaffolding instruction in cases where students do not have requisite skills to meet the standards of the lesson.

Career Options and Salary Info for Teachers

Continuing education and specializations are highly valued in the Minnesota education system. STEM teachers and special education teachers continue to be some of the most in-demand careers in the education sector throughout the state. It is also important to note that Minnesota fully supports career development. Many programs are funded by state and federal grants to improve the quality of education provided in Minnesota. Though it has been noted that ECE professionals in rural areas have a greater challenge to reach these government-funded training and development programs than those who live in cities. It is also possible to pursue additional specialization and skill-based certifications online or at a nearby college or university.

Early Childhood Education Teaching Salaries in Minnesota

Each early childhood education position will vary based on a number of elements, such as years of experience, education qualifications, type of employer, and location. If you live and work in a metro area, you are likely to make more money than someone teaching at a rural school. Also, keep in mind that the number of teachers during the past six years, throughout the state of Minnesota, has increased by nearly 6% and is expected to grow by 6% again by 2026.


Publisher Rocket Logo

The Benefits to Hiring a Ghostwriter

Allows you to present your ideas in a clear professional manner.

Let’s face it. Not everyone was born to be a writer. Me personally, I admit that I’m not the best out there. But what if you have an amazing idea, yet lack the words to bring it to life? That’s one area where a ghostwriter can come in handy. A ghostwriter can take your well-formed ideas and present them in a way everyone will enjoy.

Makes building your author brand easier and more efficient.

Establishing your author brand takes time. Whether it’s blogging or writing a book, creating quality content doesn’t always happen as fast as you’d like. And without that content, it’s hard to build upon your author brand. Hiring a ghostwriter helps to ease that pain a bit. A ghostwriter is a professional who can help you achieve your goals in a quicker period of time. And since they don’t take credit for the work done, your brand will benefit.

Allows you to explore otherwise unreachable niches.

While some ghostwriters prefer to stay within selected niches, many of them spread their talents across many writing fields. They are quite literally masters of adjustment. Not only do they make niche adjustments, but stylistic and voice adjustments as well. Using a ghostwriter can help you to explore other areas you aren’t quite as familiar with.

Lightens your load through collaboration.

And finally, hiring a ghostwriter can seriously take a load of your shoulders. With a ghostwriter, you don’t have to write everything yourself. You’ll have someone to collaborate with. And if you can maintain a long-term relationship with a single writer, that person will be able to better adapt to your voice, style, and tone for future projects.

Your Obligations Prior to Hiring Ghostwriter

You shouldn’t expect to have your ghostwriter create your plot, characters, settings, and other important literary devices. Yes, they will help you develop them through their words. But the ideas behind them should be yours.

Normally, if you present a professional ghostwriter with the task of fully creating your book–from ideas, plotting, planning, writing, etc.–the reaction you’ll receive might not be the one you want. I’ve heard from many ghostwriters that this becomes insulting. If they’re going to do literally everything, they might as well just write the book under their own name and take the credit. That being said, some will still accept your job, but be prepared to pay a much, much larger premium.

Another major thing you should have complete–especially for a novel– is a detailed outline of your project. Remember, this is your project — not the ghostwriter’s. You need to give them detailed instructions on which direction you want your story to go. If you’re looking for collaboration in that department, you’ll want to build it into your contract.

KDP Rocket Shirt

We’re Here to Help!

Cost for a book proposal

If you plan to engage an agent and submit your story to a book publisher, you will need to prepare a standard book proposal. This is a specialized document containing a lot of information about your book. Book proposals vary in length and need to be tailor made for each submission. In most cases, proposals run 50 – 80 pages, though some can be longer.

If you are going this route and plan to hire a ghostwriter to write your book, you’ll want to first engage her to write the proposal. After all, she will outline your book and write two chapters as part of this process. So she will already be well on the way to getting your book done.

A ghostwriter’s fee for a quality book proposal will run somewhere between $10,000 – $15,000. However, this price should be factored into the overall price, if you hire that ghostwriter to write your book.

Incentives to offer a ghostwriter

a ghostwriter

If you’re looking for a cheap ghostwriter on Guru or Upwork, you’ll discover that many will vie for your attention like fish seeking breadcrumbs. However, the tide shifts a bit when you seek a high-end professional ghostwriter. You may find that she isn’t as desperate for work.

If you are eager to engage a popular ghostwriter and sense that she might be able to sign with only one or two new clients when you contact her, it might be wise to consider offering a few incentives to entice her to sign a contract with you.

A percentage of the back end

While it would never be proper to ask a professional ghostwriter to work solely for a percentage of the back end (royalties), it can be a nice bonus to a ghostwriter’s fee. This incentive has the added benefit of including the writer in the marketing of the project. She will be invested in ensuring that the book sells well.

Some ghostwriters won’t be able to do much to help you with sales, while others are well versed in that area. If your prospective writer is great at marketing, it doesn’t hurt to bring her in as a marketing partner from the start.

A cover credit

For a ghostwriter who is starting out, a cover credit is worth a lot, because he can add it to his portfolio and resume. An open credit will help him gain future clients. Most authors don’t want to share with their readers that they had help in writing the book. That is always fine with me. It’s part of the job. You’re the author; I’m the ghost. However, if you’re willing to share credit, it can be a lovely enticement.

This is the way it would work: The front cover would read by Your Name, then underneath it would read “with” or “as told to” Ghostwriter’s Name. The author still gets the recognition as the creator of the book, but the ghostwriter gets her name associated with the project.

An Acknowledgment

As I mentioned, most authors don’t like to spill the beans that they actually didn’t write their book themselves. However, many will find a way to pay homage to and thank their ghost in the acknowledgment section of their books. Over the last twenty years, I’d say half my clients gave me such a gift. I always really appreciated this kindness.

Write a testimonial

When you are finished with your book, it would be nice to offer to write a testimonial for your ghostwriter. This allows him to share your success story with other potential clients in the future.

I have been very fortunate to have gathered quite a collection of testimonials. Some authors sign with just their initials, as they wish to keep their anonymity, while others proudly share their full name.

Customary Publishing Deal or Self-Publishing?

Would you like to follow the customary course of trying to locate a major name distributor and getting a progress to help settle the expenses? Or on the other hand, would you like to keep up control of the entire project and independently publish. Either with or without the assistance of an independent publisher?

On the off chance that it is the former then you at first need the ghostwriter to deliver a proposal which can be taken to distributors. Either by you, by the ghost or by a specialist who might have the capacity to lead you to. The ghostwriter would then be able to compose the entire original copy once the distributor has been found.

If you need to keep up control then the professional writer will compose the entire manuscript for you from the beginning. That writer should have the capacity to enable you to find the specialists you have to transform it into a completed book.

A proposition for a conventional publisher will presumably be between 10,000 and 20,000 words, containing a short rundown, a writer profile, chapter breakdown, some example sections and any foundation data which will help the deal, (comparative books available, hostage markets and so on).

An entire book could be anything from 30,000 to 100,000 words or more. There are more often 300 and 400 words on a page, so you can work out generally what that will look like.

Picking the correct one for your Ghostwriting Services

When you have a clear view what the book is to be about and what you need to do with it. Once it is composed, you would then be able to reach a few ghostwriters. An email is likely the best first way to deal with a survey in the event that they are interested and that they are available. At that point move to telephone calls or Skype to perceive how the science is between you two.

You will need to believe your ghostwriter totally on the grounds that you will let them know everything. Similarly, as you tell your specialist, your advisor or your legal advisor. On the off chance that anything about them influences you to question that you will be OK with them, at that point proceed onward to the next person.

The amount a Ghostwriter Cost

How much a ghostwriter will cost involves the matter of supply and demand in the market. On the off chance that they have all the work they can deal with and potential customers approaching them consistently they will cost a great deal. For that cash, you will have the certainty that the writing will be of a specific standard and that the professional writer will know precisely what they are doing.

If they are simply beginning and frantically need to get a few books on their cv then they will be more reasonable. Yet there is dependably a risk that they won’t write well or as fast. You need a primary concern on what your financial plan is. Ask them what they would charge and don’t be reluctant to negotiate.

It is vital that neither of you goes into the relationship where you feel angry about the cash. Of course, if the ghostwriter will be burning through a year or half working for you then you must be set up to pay what might as well be called a decent compensation. On the off chance that it is a proposal they can do in a month, the same concepts apply. It’s all about giving and take, and the understanding.

The Ghostwriting Process

The ghostwriter will be cheerful to sit with you and record the entire story through. Any written material that you can give them ahead of time, in any case, will speed things along by providing some kind of material.

In a perfect world, you will spend a couple of days recording, the professional writer will then leave and compose the main draft. You will then get together again and let them know whether they are turning out badly and right. Anything that they have misconstrued or that you neglected to let them know at the first communication, and they will then create a final version of the book.



Revealed: Oldest Universities in the World

Universities, or institutions of higher education, have their roots in Europe during medieval times where some of the oldest universities in the world were first founded. The term “university” comes from the word “universitas magistrorum et scholarium” which translates to “community of teachers and scholars.” In most places around the world, the term “university” is granted to institutions by a government agency, but in some places like the United States, there is no national standard for its definition.

With its beginnings, the philosophy behind a university is the notion of academic freedom. By the 18th century, universities were publishing research journals. Through the 19th century, religion briefly entered institutions and then became less focused on religion as science became more dominant. As time has progressed, universities have become more accessible to the masses, and today, online institutions like University of the People are helping to make education even more democratic and available to everyone.

Source: Unsplash

University of Bologna

University of Bologna

The ‘Nourishing Mother of the Studies’ according to its Latin motto, the University of Bologna was founded in 1088 and, having never been out of operation, holds the title of the oldest university in the world. Until relatively modern times, the university only taught doctorate studies, but today it has a diverse range of programs at all levels.

Located in Bologna, Italy, it has an enrolment of around 87,760 students, of which 6,400 are international students. Famous alumni include three popes, numerous businessmen and several Italian politicians. See how the University of Bologna ranks in the QS World University Rankings®

University of Salamanca

University of Salamanca

Sorbonne University

Established between 1160 and 1250 in the French capital, the University of Paris, often known as ‘la Sorbonne’, is known to have been one of the first established universities in Europe, although it was suspended from operating between 1793 and 1896, following the French Revolution.

Today, the University of Paris is scattered throughout the city, having been divided into 13 autonomous institutions in 1970, all of which maintain the high reputation of the original university. Of these 13, the highest-ranked are Sorbonne University (a new merger of Paris-Sorbonne University and Pierre and Marie Curie University, ranked 83 rd in the world) and Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (joint 287 th ).

1. University of Al Quaraouiyine

About: The University of Al Quaraouiyine is the oldest existing, continually operating and the first degree-awarding educational institution in the world according to UNESCO and Guinness World Records. The institution was incorporated into Morocco’s modern state university system in 1963. Education at Al Quaraouiyine University concentrates on the Islamic religious and legal sciences with a heavy emphasis on, and particular strengths in Classical Arabic grammar/linguistics and Maliki law. Teaching is delivered with students seated in a semi-circle around a sheikh, who prompts them to read sections of a text, asks them questions, and explains difficult points. The university is open to both men and women.

The University was founded with an associated madrasa, a specific type of religious school or college for the study of the Islamic religion, by Fatima al-Fihri, the daughter of a wealthy merchant. Fatima vowed to spend her inheritance on the construction of a mosque suitable for her community.


Example: Jing, an ecommerce entrepreneur, knew that people that grind their teeth can suffer from excruciating pain. More than just the physical pain, constant grinding can lead to expensive dental bills.

entrepreneur vs business owner

Starting Your First Venture? Here’s What You Need to Become a Business Owner

Starting Your First Venture? Here’s What You Need to Become a Business Owner

In 1990, he opened his own auto shop. He took a risk, went through the motions of uncertainty and stress, worked a second job to support his family and his business, grew his customer base, hired other mechanics, sold services (auto repair) as well as products (auto parts), and was ultimately accountable for his own success.

Ask him what he does for a living, however, and he won’t tell you he’s a business owner. He’ll say he fixes cars. Ask him about being his own boss and he’ll say, “When you have your own business, you’re not the boss. You’re an employee.”

Some people exclude those who own side businesses as “real business owners.” Others refer to the title broadly, including anyone who starts a new business in any capacity. And let’s not forget the “entrepreneurial tendencies” people can have without owning a business that many companies today look for in the people they hire.

Free: The Big List of Business Ideas

Get the big list of business ideas delivered right to your inbox.

Thanks for subscribing. You’ll start receiving free tips and resources soon. In the meantime, start building your store with a free 14-day trial of Shopify.

Are you a business owner?

When we use the words business owner , meaning one who individually or with partners is in control of monetary and operational decision-making, we are talking about a true sense of ownership. The business owner has ultimate control over the company and decides what to delegate and to whom.

Though the image of the young Silicon Valley prodigy often comes to mind, the average age of a business owner in the US is closer to 50 years old. A business owner can earn a monthly salary and typically earns more than an average American, but he or she is not an employee and is the only one in the company who has the right to take a net profit at the end of the year or reinvest that money back into the company.

To gat her whether you are a business owner or operator, it all comes down to one question: Are you running your business, or is your business running you? To determine the answer to this question, ask yourself the following: Are you able to be strategic, or are you doing the same things over and over because you’re too busy to create an atmosphere of innovation ? Are you able to step back and see the bigger picture? Or are you caught in the weeds because your team can’t effectively run the ship without you?

15 business owner titles

1. Owner

This is one of the most straightforward business owner titles, as it immediately indicates a person’s main role in an organization. It does not, however, give any indication regarding that respective person’s role within the company’s managerial structure, as some owners have no active role within their own organization.

This is typically not a major issue for small companies, as it is commonly assumed that a small business owner will be actively involved in their company’s day-to-day operations. As your company gets larger, you might add titles, such as chief financial officer or managing director.

2. CEO

The CEO title is an abbreviation for Chief Executive Officer, and it is generally given to the person who runs the day-to-day operations of an organization but also has a major role in creating and implementing long-term strategies. This role typically involves delegating to other employees consistently, so one of the CEO’s main responsibilities is finding the right professionals for each position in their company.

The CEO title is often used for large businesses, and though there is no restriction for using it if you are the head of a smaller organization, it has the potential to be confusing for business partners and clients.

Although the CEO of a large company is in charge of all major decisions within the organization, they usually do not also own the respective organization. More often, they answer to a board of directors and can be dismissed if their results are below expectations. So, even though the title of CEO shows high levels of authority and responsibility, it does not necessarily show any level of ownership

3. Founder

The title of founder automatically gives a clear indication that you were directly involved in the creation of the company. Unlike other titles, like CEO or owner, this one cannot be passed from one person to another, as the founding of a company is a one-time event.

This title typically resonates strongly with clients and partners, as it indicates your deep connection with the business. It does not, however, give any indication regarding your current role in the organization’s hierarchy, so it is recommended more for smaller companies unless followed by an additional title.

4. Managing director

Usually abbreviated to MD, the title of managing director is similar to that of a CEO in the sense that both are typically involved in all short- and long-term aspects and decisions of an organization. The choice between MD and CEO is typically a personal decision. However, in the case of smaller companies, the title of MD can potentially seem more appropriate than CEO, as the latter may seem unrealistic considering the size of the company.

5. President

As the head of an organization or a branch of an organization, the president may or may not also be the CEO. Some company presidents also hold the CEO title, while others have to directly report to the CEO, who is higher up in the hierarchy. It also does not indicate company ownership, as some presidents are simply employees while others own at least a part of the business.

6. Director

This business owner title shows your authority while also giving more details regarding your exact role within the business. It’s typically combined with one or more other words that better explain the nature of your professional duties. The exact level of authority implied by the title of director varies depending on the organization’s structure but they usually report directly to the CEO. The most commonly used director titles are director of operations

7. Principal

The title of principal can imply multiple responsibilities that vary from one organization to another but it is most widely used for company founders, owners and CEOs. The role typically implies direct involvement in the management of active clients and daily business operations, but it is also an essential decision-making role regarding the organization’s short- and long-term future.

For smaller companies, the roles of president, CEO and principal usually bear the same responsibilities, whereas principals in larger companies typically handle direct relationships with the organization’s clients, business partners and other involved parties.

8. Managing partner or managing member

This title gives people a good impression regarding your level of involvement and ownership within the company. The word "managing" is a clear indication that you are directly involved in the management of a company department or of the entire company, while the word "member" or "partner" shows that you at least partially own the organization.

9. Administrator

Although an administrator can also be a manager, the two are typically different roles, as the administrator usually deals with various aspects of an organization’s short- and long-term plans, while a manager role implies leading a group of people. As a business owner, the title of administrator is a clear indication that you also play a major part in directing the company’s current and future actions.


Lord Byron differed from the writing styles of Keats and Shelley. He was heavily influenced by the satire and wit from the previous period and infused this in his poetry. His satire Don Juan (1819-1824) is told in 17 cantos, divisions of long poems, and is based on the traditional legend of Don Juan. Byron changes the original telling of the story and instead of creating a womanizing character, he makes Don Juan someone easily seduced by women. The cantos follow his character’s journey as he travels throughout Europe meeting several women and continually trying to escape from trouble. Byron’s other notable work is Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage (1812-1816), another lengthy narrative poem. This poem was largely biographical and discusses many of Byron’s personal travels. It describes the reflections of a young man who is seeking new beginnings in foreign countries after experiencing many years of war. This poem is significant because it introduced the Byronic hero, typically a handsome and intelligent man with a tendency to be moody, cynical, and rebellious against social norms.

The Romantic Period

The Romantic Period began roughly around 1798 and lasted until 1837. The political and economic atmosphere at the time heavily influenced this period, with many writers finding inspiration from the French Revolution. There was a lot of social change during this period. Calls for the abolition of slavery became louder during this time, with more writing openly about their objections. After the Agricultural Revolution people moved away from the countryside and farmland and into the cities, where the Industrial Revolution provided jobs and technological innovations, something that would spread to the United States in the 19 th century. Romanticism was a reaction against this spread of industrialism, as well as a criticism of the aristocratic social and political norms and a call for more attention to nature. Although writers of this time did not think of themselves as Romantics, Victorian writers later classified them in this way because of their ability to capture the emotion and tenderness of man.

Robert Burns is considered the pioneer of the Romantic Movement. Although his death in 1796 precedes what many consider the start of Romanticism, his lyricism and sincerity mark him as an early Romantic writer. His most notable works are “Auld Lang Syne” (1788) and “Tam o’ Shanter” (1791). Burns inspired many of the writers during the Romantic Period.

William Blake was one of the earliest Romantic Period writers. Blake believed in spiritual and political freedom and often wrote about these themes in his works. Although some of his poetry was published before the official start to the era, Blake can be seen as one of the founders of this movement. His works, Songs of Innocence (1789) and Songs of Experience (1794), are two of his most significant. These collections of poetry are some of the first to romanticize children, and in these works Blake pits the innocence and imagination of childhood against the harsh corruption of adulthood, especially within the city of London. He was also known for his beautiful drawings, which accompanied each of these poems.

Scholars say that the Romantic Period began with the publishing of Lyrical Ballads (1798) by William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge. This was one of the first collections of poems that strayed from the more formal poetic diction of the Neoclassical Period. Poets of the period instead used everyday words that the average person could understand. This also aided in expressing human emotion. Wordsworth primarily wrote about nature. He felt it could provide a source of mental cleanliness and spiritual understanding. One of Wordsworth’s well-known works is “The Solitary Reaper” (1807). This poem praises the beauty of music and shows the outpouring of expression and emotion that Wordsworth felt was necessary in poetry. His greatest piece is The Prelude (1850), a semi-autobiographical, conversation poem that chronicles Wordsworth’s entire life. Conversational poetry was the literary genre most commonly used by Wordsworth and Coleridge, with the latter writing a series of eight poems following the genre structure of conversational verse and examining higher ideas of nature, man, and morality. This poetry is written in blank verse and is extremely personal and intimate in nature, with much of the content based on the author’s life.

Coleridge and Wordsworth were very good friends and the two often influenced each other. While Wordsworth was much more meditative and calm, Coleridge was the opposite and lived a more uncontrolled life. Of his three major poems only one is complete: The Rime of the Ancient Mariner (1798). This poem tells the story of a sailor’s journey and his experiences on the ship. The sailor is cursed by supernatural powers and is only able to return home when he appreciates the animals and nature around him. He is forced to wander the Earth sharing his story due to his earlier mistakes. His two other long form poems are Kubla Khan (1816) and Christabel (1816). According to Coleridge, his poem Kubla Khan came to him in an opium-induced dream after reading a work about Chinese emperor Kublai Khan. He was never able to finish the work. Christabel tells the story of the title character meeting a stranger named Geraldine who asks for Christabel’s help. Ignoring the supernatural signs, Christabel rescues and takes her home, but it appears that the stranger is not normal. Coleridge was only able to finish two out of his five intended parts to the poem.

Succeeding Blake, Coleridge, and Wordsworth was a new generation of poets, each following the pattern of Romanticism of those before them. John Keats is still one of the most popular of these poets, with his work continually read and analyzed today. Keats aimed to express extreme emotion in his poetry, using natural imagery to do this. He is well known for his odes, lyrical stanzas that are typically written in praise of, or in dedication to, something or someone that the writer admires. These odes followed the genre of lyrical poetry and focused on intense emotion using personal narrative. Among these odes, “Ode to a Nightingale” (1819) and “Ode on a Grecian Urn” (1819) are most famous. Keats was preoccupied with death and aging throughout his life, which is shown in each of these two odes. “Ode to a Nightingale” discusses the temporary status of life and beauty, but in “Ode on a Grecian Urn,” he explores the artistic permanence of the images on the urn.


Useful as it is to trace the common elements in Romantic poetry, there was little conformity among the poets themselves. It is misleading to read the poetry of the first Romantics as if it had been written primarily to express their feelings. Their concern was rather to change the intellectual climate of the age. William Blake had been dissatisfied since boyhood with the current state of poetry and what he considered the irreligious drabness of contemporary thought. His early development of a protective shield of mocking humour with which to face a world in which science had become trifling and art inconsequential is visible in the satirical An Island in the Moon (written c. 1784–85); he then took the bolder step of setting aside sophistication in the visionary Songs of Innocence (1789). His desire for renewal encouraged him to view the outbreak of the French Revolution as a momentous event. In works such as The Marriage of Heaven and Hell (1790–93) and Songs of Experience (1794), he attacked the hypocrisies of the age and the impersonal cruelties resulting from the dominance of analytic reason in contemporary thought. As it became clear that the ideals of the Revolution were not likely to be realized in his time, he renewed his efforts to revise his contemporaries’ view of the universe and to construct a new mythology centred not in the God of the Bible but in Urizen, a repressive figure of reason and law whom he believed to be the deity actually worshipped by his contemporaries. The story of Urizen’s rise was set out in The First Book of Urizen (1794) and then, more ambitiously, in the unfinished manuscript Vala (later redrafted as The Four Zoas), written from about 1796 to about 1807.

Pity by William Blake

Blake developed these ideas in the visionary narratives of Milton (1804–08) and Jerusalem (1804–20). Here, still using his own mythological characters, he portrayed the imaginative artist as the hero of society and suggested the possibility of redemption from the fallen (or Urizenic) condition.

William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, meanwhile, were also exploring the implications of the French Revolution. Wordsworth, who lived in France in 1791–92 and fathered an illegitimate child there, was distressed when, soon after his return, Britain declared war on the republic, dividing his allegiance. For the rest of his career, he was to brood on those events, trying to develop a view of humanity that would be faithful to his twin sense of the pathos of individual human fates and the unrealized potentialities in humanity as a whole. The first factor emerges in his early manuscript poems “The Ruined Cottage” and “The Pedlar” (both to form part of the later Excursion); the second was developed from 1797, when he and his sister, Dorothy, with whom he was living in the west of England, were in close contact with Coleridge. Stirred simultaneously by Dorothy’s immediacy of feeling, manifested everywhere in her Journals (written 1798–1803, published 1897), and by Coleridge’s imaginative and speculative genius, he produced the poems collected in Lyrical Ballads (1798). The volume began with Coleridge’s “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner,” continued with poems displaying delight in the powers of nature and the humane instincts of ordinary people, and concluded with the meditative “Lines Written a Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey,” Wordsworth’s attempt to set out his mature faith in nature and humanity.

His investigation of the relationship between nature and the human mind continued in the long autobiographical poem addressed to Coleridge and later titled The Prelude (1798–99 in two books; 1804 in five books; 1805 in 13 books; revised continuously and published posthumously, 1850). Here he traced the value for a poet of having been a child “fostered alike by beauty and by fear” by an upbringing in sublime surroundings. The Prelude constitutes the most significant English expression of the Romantic discovery of the self as a topic for art and literature. The poem also makes much of the work of memory, a theme explored as well in the “ Ode: Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood.” In poems such as “ Michael” and “ The Brothers,” by contrast, written for the second volume of Lyrical Ballads (1800), Wordsworth dwelt on the pathos and potentialities of ordinary lives.

Coleridge’s poetic development during these years paralleled Wordsworth’s. Having briefly brought together images of nature and the mind in “ The Eolian Harp” (1796), he devoted himself to more-public concerns in poems of political and social prophecy, such as “Religious Musings” and “The Destiny of Nations.” Becoming disillusioned in 1798 with his earlier politics, however, and encouraged by Wordsworth, he turned back to the relationship between nature and the human mind. Poems such as “This Lime-Tree Bower My Prison,” “The Nightingale,” and “Frost at Midnight” (now sometimes called the “conversation poems” but collected by Coleridge himself as “Meditative Poems in Blank Verse”) combine sensitive descriptions of nature with subtlety of psychological comment. “ Kubla Khan” (1797 or 1798, published 1816), a poem that Coleridge said came to him in “a kind of Reverie,” represented a new kind of exotic writing, which he also exploited in the supernaturalism of “The Ancient Mariner” and the unfinished “Christabel.” After his visit to Germany in 1798–99, he renewed attention to the links between the subtler forces in nature and the human psyche; this attention bore fruit in letters, notebooks, literary criticism, theology, and philosophy. Simultaneously, his poetic output became sporadic. “ Dejection: An Ode” (1802), another meditative poem, which first took shape as a verse letter to Sara Hutchinson, Wordsworth’s sister-in-law, memorably describes the suspension of his “shaping spirit of Imagination.”

Other poets of the early Romantic period

In his own lifetime, Blake’s poetry was scarcely known. Sir Walter Scott, by contrast, was thought of as a major poet for his vigorous and evocative verse narratives The Lay of the Last Minstrel (1805) and Marmion (1808). Other verse writers were also highly esteemed. The Elegiac Sonnets (1784) of Charlotte Smith and the Fourteen Sonnets (1789) of William Lisle Bowles were received with enthusiasm by Coleridge. Thomas Campbell is now chiefly remembered for his patriotic lyrics such as “Ye Mariners of England” and “The Battle of Hohenlinden” (1807) and for the critical preface to his Specimens of the British Poets (1819); Samuel Rogers was known for his brilliant table talk (published 1856, after his death, as Recollections of the Table-Talk of Samuel Rogers), as well as for his exquisite but exiguous poetry. Another admired poet of the day was Thomas Moore, whose Irish Melodies began to appear in 1808. His highly coloured narrative Lalla Rookh: An Oriental Romance (1817) and his satirical poetry were also immensely popular. Charlotte Smith was not the only significant woman poet in this period. Helen Maria Williams’s Poems (1786), Ann Batten Cristall’s Poetical Sketches (1795), Mary Robinson’s Sappho and Phaon (1796), and Mary Tighe’s Psyche (1805) all contain notable work.

Robert Southey was closely associated with Wordsworth and Coleridge and was looked upon as a prominent member, with them, of the “ Lake school” of poetry. His originality is best seen in his ballads and his nine “English Eclogues,” three of which were first published in the 1799 volume of his Poems with a prologue explaining that these verse sketches of contemporary life bore “no resemblance to any poems in our language.” His “Oriental” narrative poems Thalaba the Destroyer (1801) and The Curse of Kehama (1810) were successful in their own time, but his fame is based on his prose work—the Life of Nelson (1813), the History of the Peninsular War (1823–32), and his classic formulation of the children’s tale “The Three Bears.”

George Crabbe wrote poetry of another kind: his sensibility, his values, much of his diction, and his heroic couplet verse form belong to the 18th century. He differs from the earlier Augustans, however, in his subject matter, concentrating on realistic, unsentimental accounts of the life of the poor and the middle classes. He shows considerable narrative gifts in his collections of verse tales (in which he anticipates many short-story techniques) and great powers of description. His antipastoral The Village appeared in 1783. After a long silence, he returned to poetry with The Parish Register (1807), The Borough (1810), Tales in Verse (1812), and Tales of the Hall (1819), which gained him great popularity in the early 19th century.


Romanticism proper was preceded by several related developments from the mid-18th century on that can be termed Pre-Romanticism. Among such trends was a new appreciation of the medieval romance, from which the Romantic movement derives its name. The romance was a tale or ballad of chivalric adventure whose emphasis on individual heroism and on the exotic and the mysterious was in clear contrast to the elegant formality and artificiality of prevailing Classical forms of literature, such as the French Neoclassical tragedy or the English heroic couplet in poetry. This new interest in relatively unsophisticated but overtly emotional literary expressions of the past was to be a dominant note in Romanticism.

Romanticism in English literature began in the 1790s with the publication of the Lyrical Ballads of William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Wordsworth’s “Preface” to the second edition (1800) of Lyrical Ballads, in which he described poetry as “the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings,” became the manifesto of the English Romantic movement in poetry. William Blake was the third principal poet of the movement’s early phase in England. The first phase of the Romantic movement in Germany was marked by innovations in both content and literary style and by a preoccupation with the mystical, the subconscious, and the supernatural. A wealth of talents, including Friedrich Hölderlin, the early Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Jean Paul, Novalis, Ludwig Tieck, August Wilhelm and Friedrich von Schlegel, Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder, and Friedrich Schelling, belong to this first phase. In Revolutionary France, François-Auguste-René, vicomte de Chateaubriand, and Madame de Staël were the chief initiators of Romanticism, by virtue of their influential historical and theoretical writings.

Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein: Goethe in the Roman Campagna

The second phase of Romanticism, comprising the period from about 1805 to the 1830s, was marked by a quickening of cultural nationalism and a new attention to national origins, as attested by the collection and imitation of native folklore, folk ballads and poetry, folk dance and music, and even previously ignored medieval and Renaissance works. The revived historical appreciation was translated into imaginative writing by Sir Walter Scott, who is often considered to have invented the historical novel. At about this same time English Romantic poetry had reached its zenith in the works of John Keats, Lord Byron, and Percy Bysshe Shelley.

Sir Walter Scott

A notable by-product of the Romantic interest in the emotional were works dealing with the supernatural, the weird, and the horrible, as in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein and works by Charles Robert Maturin, the Marquis de Sade, and E.T.A. Hoffmann. The second phase of Romanticism in Germany was dominated by Achim von Arnim, Clemens Brentano, Joseph von Görres, and Joseph von Eichendorff.

Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley

By the 1820s Romanticism had broadened to embrace the literatures of almost all of Europe. In this later, second, phase, the movement was less universal in approach and concentrated more on exploring each nation’s historical and cultural inheritance and on examining the passions and struggles of exceptional individuals. A brief survey of Romantic or Romantic-influenced writers would have to include Thomas De Quincey, William Hazlitt, and Charlotte, Emily, and Anne Brontë in England; Victor Hugo, Alfred de Vigny, Alphonse de Lamartine, Alfred de Musset, Stendhal, Prosper Mérimée, Alexandre Dumas, and Théophile Gautier in France; Alessandro Manzoni and Giacomo Leopardi in Italy; Aleksandr Pushkin and Mikhail Lermontov in Russia; José de Espronceda and Ángel de Saavedra in Spain; Adam Mickiewicz in Poland; and almost all of the important writers in pre-Civil War America.

Charlotte Brontë

Visual arts

In the 1760s and ’70s a number of British artists at home and in Rome, including James Barry, Henry Fuseli, John Hamilton Mortimer, and John Flaxman, began to paint subjects that were at odds with the strict decorum and classical historical and mythological subject matter of conventional figurative art. These artists favoured themes that were bizarre, pathetic, or extravagantly heroic, and they defined their images with tensely linear drawing and bold contrasts of light and shade. William Blake, the other principal early Romantic painter in England, evolved his own powerful and unique visionary images.

William Blake: Pity

In the next generation the great genre of English Romantic landscape painting emerged in the works of J.M.W. Turner and John Constable. These artists emphasized transient and dramatic effects of light, atmosphere, and colour to portray a dynamic natural world capable of evoking awe and grandeur.

J.M.W. Turner: Rain, Steam, and Speed—the Great Western Railway

In France the chief early Romantic painters were Baron Antoine Gros, who painted dramatic tableaus of contemporary incidents of the Napoleonic Wars, and Théodore Géricault, whose depictions of individual heroism and suffering in The Raft of the Medusa and in his portraits of the insane truly inaugurated the movement around 1820. The greatest French Romantic painter was Eugène Delacroix, who is notable for his free and expressive brushwork, his rich and sensuous use of colour, his dynamic compositions, and his exotic and adventurous subject matter, ranging from North African Arab life to revolutionary politics at home. Paul Delaroche, Théodore Chassériau, and, occasionally, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres represent the last, more academic phase of Romantic painting in France. In Germany Romantic painting took on symbolic and allegorical overtones, as in the works of Philipp Otto Runge. Caspar David Friedrich, the greatest German Romantic artist, painted eerily silent and stark landscapes that can induce in the beholder a sense of mystery and religious awe.

Théodore Géricault: The Raft of the Medusa

Romanticism expressed itself in architecture primarily through imitations of older architectural styles and through eccentric buildings known as “follies.” Medieval Gothic architecture appealed to the Romantic imagination in England and Germany, and this renewed interest led to the Gothic Revival.

London: Houses of Parliament